Most trade agreements use a “positive list” approach to decide which services are covered; this means that only the services listed in the agreement will be liberalized. CETA is the first EU trade agreement to adopt a “negative list” approach, meaning that all services are included, unless a country has explicitly considered it excluded. The problem with this approach is that it leads to a creeping liberalisation of public services, as negotiators do not contain sufficiently watertight exclusions and cannot predict what new services might be created in the future. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) (Canada-Europe Trade Agreement) is a free trade agreement between Canada and the European Union. [3] [4] [5] It was applied on an interim basis[6] and thus eliminated 98% of the existing tariffs between the two parties. CETA is Canada`s largest bilateral initiative since NAFTA. It was launched as a result of a joint study “Assessing the Costs and Benefits of a Closer EU-Canada Economic Partnership”[22] published in October 2008. Officials announced the opening of negotiations on May 6, 2009 at the Canada-EU Summit in Prague [4] [23] At the conclusion of the Canada-EU Summit in Ottawa on March 18, 2004, at which the Heads of State and Government agreed on a framework for a new Canada-EU Trade and Investment Promotion Agreement (TIEA). TIEA should go beyond traditional market access issues and include areas such as trade and investment facilitation, competition, mutual recognition of professional qualifications, financial services, e-commerce, temporary access, small and medium-sized enterprises, sustainable development and the exchange of knowledge and technology. TIEA should also build on a regulatory cooperation framework between Canada and the EU to promote bilateral cooperation on the regulatory approach, promote best regulatory practices and facilitate trade and investment. In addition to removing barriers, TIEA is expected to increase Canadian and European interest in each other`s markets. [24] TIEA lasted until 2006, when Canada and the EU decided to halt negotiations.

This has led to negotiations for a canada-EU trade agreement (later renamed the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) and this agreement, beyond TIEA, is in line with an agreement with a much broader and more ambitious scope. The European Commission has proposed CETA as a “mixed agreement” that must be ratified by each EU member state in addition to the European Parliament. This process could take several years. In the United Kingdom, the agreement must be submitted to Parliament for a period of 21 sitting days. The agreement can only be ratified if the 21-day deadline has passed without either parliament deciding not to ratify it. In the case of such a resolution of the House of Commons, an additional 21 days is set in place for the House of Commons to again raise objections. The government announced on 21 May 2018 that it would soon launch the formal ratification process in the UK.