U.S. Department of Energy, “Fact Sheet on the U.S.-Japan Civil Nuclear Memorandum of Cooperation,” November 21, 2018, on www.energy.gov/articles/fact-sheet-us-japan-civil-nuclear-memorandum-cooperation. 5. ustr.gov/countries-regions/japan-korea-apec/japan. 9. www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/president-donald-j-trump-secured-tremendous-victory-american-farmers-businesses-new-japan-trade-agreements/. During his cabinet reshuffle in September 2019, Abe attacked emerging star Shinjiro Koizumi, son of former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, as environment minister and minister of state for nuclear emergencies prevention. At 38, Koizumi is one of Japan`s youngest ministers and is considered by many to be a candidate for prime minister in the future. Shortly after his appointment, Koizumi went to the UN climate summit and made waves in the press, declaring climate change “cool” and “sexy.” 12 Despite Koizumi`s high-level role, Japan`s environmental record has been attacked in recent years by other members of the international climate community, particularly its coal policy.

At the September 2019 UNITED Nations climate change summit, Japan was not invited to speak because the UN Secretary-General asked countries present to stop building new coal-fired power plants.13 (The United States was also excluded because of President Trump`s decision to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement.) Since the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011, Japan has adopted a more coal-intensive energy portfolio to fill gaps in nuclear power generation. (The background information is available in the “Energy and Environmental Issues” section.) On October 7, 2019, USTR Robert Lighthizer and Japan`s Ambassador to the United States Shinsuke J. Sugiyama signed the U.S.-Japan trade agreement and the U.S.-Japan Digital Trade Agreement. Following national procedures, both agreements came into force on 1 January 2020. As announced in the joint statement of the United States and Japan of September 25, 2019, the United States and Japan intend to conclude consultations within four months of the U.S.-Japan trade agreement coming into force and then to open negotiations on tariffs and other trade restrictions, trade barriers and investment, and other issues, to promote mutually beneficial, fair and reciprocal trade for both parties. However, Congress continues to support a rapid reduction in Japanese agricultural tariffs under the original agreement, as it is increasingly concerned that Japan`s other recently adopted trade agreements will penalize U.S. exports. U.S. agriculture, including the pork industries, beef and wheat, welcomed the new agreement that will put U.S. producers back on a level playing field with their foreign competitors.131 After the U.S. withdrawal from the TPP, Japan led the efforts of the remaining 11 TPP countries to finalize the global and progressive TPP (TPTPP or TPP-11), which came into force in December for the first six signatories, including Japan. In February 2019, Japan`s free trade agreement with the EU also came into force, which finally introduced almost all tariffs between the parties, At the same time, some U.S.

industries, such as the milk and rice industries, have expressed concerns about the extent of new market access or the lack of attention to other key issues such as geographic indications (G.G.) or plant health and protection standards (SPS), which are among the areas usually covered by the U.S. ATF. CBP indicated that its Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) will be able to process claims arising from the U.S.-Japan trade agreement as of January 14. For products imported between January 1 and January 13, importers can apply for preferential tariff treatment retroactively by the Post Summary Correction (PSC), with CBP able to issue customs refunds if merchants