The elected Belgian government fled the occupation and settled in France and then in London, where it established the Belgian government-in-exile led by Hubert Pierlot and the Free Belgian Forces of Victor van Strydonck de Burkel.  Belgian troops participated in the D-Day Campaign, the Italian Campaign, the landings on Walcheren Island, and the Battle of the Atlantic.   Britain and the United States targeted occupied Belgium with strategic bombing, resulting in numerous civilian casualties.  The liberation of Belgium began in September 1944, when Allied forces, including the Free Belgians, invaded the country.  German troops retaliated in December with the Ardennes offensive; the failure of this offensive forced all German troops from Belgium until February 1945.  German V-like bombing continued until the end of the war.  The government and the king fled the country to Egypt, from where they continued the fight. The occupying forces set up a number of fanatical governments that enjoyed little loyalty. From 1942 a vigorous resistance movement developed, largely dominated by the Communist-led National Liberation Front (EAM) and the National Republican Greek League (EDES). Libya has seen some of the fiercest fighting in the North African campaign. At the beginning of the war, Italy wanted to extend Libya`s borders to the south and annex a land bridge that connects it to Italian East Africa.  In September 1940, Italy, with its invasion of Egypt, launched the Western campaign in the desert. Last December, the British retaliated with Operation Compass, which pushed Italian forces back across the border, occupied all of Cyrenaica, and captured most of the Tithe Army.
With German support, this area was recovered during Operation Sunflower, although the Allies successfully lifted the siege of Tobruk. The Battle of Gazala in 1942 finally for the Allies of Tobruk in Egypt. The Second Battle of El Alamein in Egypt meant the end of the Axis powers in Libya and the end of the Western campaign in the desert. During the war, 1.1 million Canadians served in the army, navy and air force. More than 45,000 of them lost their lives and another 54,000 were injured.  The financial cost between fiscal years 1939 and 1950 was $21,786,077,519.13.  At the end of the war, Canada had the fourth largest air force in the world, and the third largest navy.  The Canadian Merchant Navy has also made more than 25,000 voyages across the Atlantic.  Many Allied pilots trained during the war in Canada. .