Roosevelt, who sought public approval for the controversial plan, told the public and the press that his plan was similar to that of a neighbor lending a garden hose to another to extinguish a fire in his home. “What should I do in such a crisis?” the president asked at a press conference. “I`m not saying.” Neighbor, my garden hose cost me $15; You have to pay me $15 for that.” I don`t want $15 – I want my garden hose back after the fire is over.  To which Senator Robert Taft (R-Ohio) replied, “Lending war equipment is a good deal like lending gum – you certainly don`t want to get the same gum back.”  As war raged in Europe and Asia, Americans remained ambivalent about the conflict. Many saw America`s involvement in World War I as dark and did not want to send their sons back to distant battlefields. But that all changed on December 7, 1941, when the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. This map shows which ships were in port that morning and how much damage the Japanese attack caused. Japan considered the U.S. entry into the war inevitable (America had already imposed trade restrictions on Japanese attacks in China), and they hoped that a surprise attack by the U.S. Navy would destroy enough to ensure Japanese dominance at sea. This turned out to be a miscalculation. On the one hand, the most powerful ships of the US fleet, its aircraft carriers, were not in the region on that fateful day.
But more importantly, the U.S. economy was more than five times larger than the Japanese economy — the U.S. quickly replaced the ships that had been destroyed and would eventually build many more. . The British Commonwealth`s spending on reverse loans and leases in the United States and on the extension of this program to the export of materials and foodstuffs on behalf of the United States authorities in the United Kingdom and the British colonies underscores the contribution that the British Commonwealth has made to the defence of the United States. while he took his place on the battle fronts. This is an indication of the extent to which the British have been able to pool their resources with ours, so that the necessary weapon can be in the hands of that soldier – regardless of nationality – who can use it as effectively as possible at the right time to defeat our common enemies.  Despite Hitler`s promises in Munich and Anglo-French guarantees to defend Czechoslovakia, the Germans crushed the Czechoslovak state in March 1939.
Britain and France responded by guaranteeing the integrity of the Polish state. This did not deter Hitler, who was determined not to be deterred from war by threats or concessions. On 28 April 1939, he announced Germany`s withdrawal from the non-aggression pact signed with Poland just over five years earlier. Hitler negotiated a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union in August 1939. The German-Soviet Pact, which secretly provided for the division of Poland between the two powers, allowed Germany to attack Poland without fear of Soviet intervention. The Stamp Act of 1765 was the first internal tax imposed by the British Parliament directly on American settlers. The law, which imposed a tax on all paper documents in the colonies, came at a time when the British Empire had been deeply indebted since the Seven Years` War (1756-63) and . The Senate vote, which took place a month later, revealed a similar partisan political difference: 49 Democrats (79 percent) voted “yes” and only 13 Democrats (21 percent) voted “no.” In contrast, 17 Republicans (63 percent) voted “no,” while 10 Republicans in the Senate (37 percent) sided with Democrats to pass the bill.  People were used to seeing Nazis and Communists as opposing ends of the political spectrum, so the world was stunned in August 1939 when Hitler and Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin made a non-aggression pact. While the existence of the pact was made public, the world knew nothing about a secret addendum detailing Hitler and Stalin`s joint plan to dismember the countries that separated them. When Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, the British and French responded by declaring war on the Nazis.
In contrast, Stalin simply made plans to invade Poland on the other side. By the end of 1940, the Soviet Union had annexed not only part of Poland, but also the nations of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. Since 1941, Stalin had urged his British and American allies to open a second front in France. The stakes of such an invasion could not have been higher. A failed amphibious landing could not only have cost tens of thousands of lives, but it would also have given the Nazis a valuable propaganda victory and shaken the world`s confidence in the Allies. The Western Allies finally felt ready to reconquer France in June 1944. This map shows the invasion plan called Operation Overlord. It was the amphibious landing of 150,000 British, American, French and Canadian soldiers on the beaches of Normandy, on the other side of the Channel from Great Britain. At a meeting in Paris in 1919, at the end of the First World War, the victorious Allies redrew the map of Europe. They dismembered the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy and reduced Germany`s borders, creating several new Central European countries. Adolf Hitler exploited German resentment against the outcome of the war to support his rise to power. When Hitler began forcibly annexing areas of his east in 1938, it triggered a political crisis and a year later the start of World War II.
When the government of Regent Mikls Horthy wanted to sign an armistice with the Allies in 1944, it was overthrown by the Nazis and replaced by a government of the Hungarian Cross Movement, which ruled the country until the Soviet invasion in 1945. The Molotov Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union left Estonia in the Soviet interest. The Soviet Union threatened Estonia with war if Estonia did not accept the Mutual Assistance Agreement, which allowed the Soviet Union to establish military bases in Estonia. The Estonian government, convinced that war against the Soviet Union was impossible, agreed on 28 September 1939. The Soviets staged a coup with the beginning of the complete Soviet occupation of Estonia by the Red Army in June 1940, and a fictitious vote took place under Soviet control. The new government took office and on July 2, 1940, the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed. The puppet state was officially admitted to the Soviet Union on August 6. The legality of annexation was not recognized by most Western countries and the Baltic states existed as formally independent nations until 1991.  Although Bhutan was under British tutelage, it remained independent; and under the reign of Jigme Wangchuck, the kingdom remained almost completely isolated from the outside world with limited relations with the British Raj in India. Despite his policy of neutrality, the king sent a gift of 100,000 rupees to the Indian government after the outbreak of war as a sign of friendship.
Restrictions on the supply of weapons from the United States were mainly limited to the supply of heavy bombers. The United States did not supply the USSR with heavy bombers on request. For example, in the 4th Ottawa Protocol (July 1, 1944 – June 30, 1945), the USSR requested 240 B-17 bombers and 300 B-24 bombers, none of which were delivered. Heavy bombers had not been mentioned in previous protocols.  The war in France did not go well for the Allies. The French and British troops were forced to retreat quickly as German troops advanced. By May 21, German troops had surrounded the British forces and effectively captured them with their backs to the sea. As the Germans approached three sides (and reached the area highlighted here in pink), the British troops were ordered to evacuate, which they did between 27 May and 4 June.
A total of 338,000 British and French soldiers escaped. Although the circumstances that necessitated the evacuation were not good news for the Allies, the successful evacuation was a minor triumph. He saved hundreds of thousands of British soldiers who would later fight the Nazis in the war. After Japan`s surrender in 1945, reforms of the Allied occupation led to a dramatic expansion of independent trade unions, which had been eliminated during the war. By the time it was stopped in 1949-50 by severe deflation, a labor law review, and a purge of the left, the union recruited 6 million members – nearly half of all workers. Unions. European countries liberated from the Nazis by British, French or American troops were allowed to become independent and democratic nations. .